Glucose: how to interpret the rate in blood (glycemia) and urine (glycosuria)?


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101 points

Glucose: how to interpret the rate in blood (glycemia) and urine (glycosuria)?


Blood glucose (blood glucose), what is it?

First things to know: glucose is a sugar, and it is essential to life. " The glucose is the main source of energy for our body: it is a fundamental element, especially for muscular activity "develops Dr. François Blanchecotte, Doctor of Pharmacy and President of the Union of Biologists (SDB).

Glucose is mainly brought to the body via diet: " it is found everywhere: in bread, orange juice, milk ... On the labels, it hides behind all the ingredients that end up -ose "adds the specialist.

Glucose passes into the bloodstream in the digestive tract: the level of glucose in the blood is called "blood sugar".

To know : "normal" blood glucose is between 0.80 and 1.15 grams per liter of blood, or between 4.5 and 6.40 μmol (micromoles) per liter of blood.

Too high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia): what can be the causes?

To know : when blood glucose is between 1.15 grams per liter of blood and 1.25 grams per liter of blood, it is called pre-diabetes. And when blood glucose is greater than 1.25 grams per liter of blood (7 μmol per liter), there is diabetes.

" The first cause ofhyperglycemia (ie, too high a blood glucose level) is diabetes, whether type 1 or type 2 Dr. Blanchecotte says: Chronic hyperglycemia can also have other origins:

  • A diet too rich in sugars (" be careful with hidden sugars in the diet! "warns Dr. Blanchecotte),
  • A pathology of the pancreas or kidneys (a cancer, for example),
  • Acromegaly (more rare),
  • Insulin deficiency or poorly effective insulin
  • Poor monitoring of treatment in diabetics.

" In the non-diabetic person, the adoption of a balanced diet and the practice of a regular physical activity allow a return to a normal glucose level in the space of approximately 1 month "says the specialist.

To know : in case of hyperglycemia greater than or equal to 1.80 grams per liter of blood, it will also be possible to measure the level of glucose in the urine (glycosuria).

Too low blood glucose (hypoglycemia): what can be the causes?

" It should be noted that blood glucose is measured at each blood testexplains Dr. Blanchecotte. This blood test (with the cholesterol) is also part of the contraceptive assessment of the girl, before the prescription of the first pill. "

A hypoglycemia (ie, too low a blood glucose level) may be related to several health concerns:

  • An unbalanced diet (" if you do not take breakfastyou risk hypoglycaemia around 11 o'clock, possibly with discomfort "says the specialist),
  • Endocrine pathology,
  • Insulinoma, that is to say a tumor (rare) in pancreatic cells that secrete insulin,
  • Non-adapted antidiabetic treatment.

Thanks to Dr. François Blanchecotte, Doctor of Pharmacy and President of Union of Biologists (SDB).

Read also :

⋙ Diabetes: fasting could reverse the progression of chronic hyperglycemia

⋙ Diabetes: what are the different forms and how to treat them?

⋙ Slow carbohydrates - fast carbohydrates: which ones to focus on?


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